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Đánh giá hiệu quả mô hình lớp học đảo ngược trong giảng dạy khóa học TOEIC, một nghiên cứu tình huống tại trường Đại học Dệt may Hà Nội

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EVALUATION ON THE EFFICACY OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM IN TEACHING A TOEIC COURSE A CASE STUDY IN HANOI INDUSTRIAL TEXTILE GARMENT UNIVERSITY
 
Đánh giá hiệu quả mô hình lớp học đảo ngược trong giảng dạy khóa học TOEIC, một nghiên cứu tình huống tại trường Đại học Dệt may Hà Nội
 
Trần Thị Hậu
Vietnam National University, Hanoi
University Languages and International Studies
Email: hautrt@hict.edu.vn                
Tel: 0355087470

ABSTRACT
            This study examined the result of a flipped classroom model as blended learning with online TOEIC course for third-year students at Hanoi Industrial Textile Garment University. The TOEIC course was trial taught for two co-horts: one was applied with flipped classroom and the lecture-based classroom is for another. As well, a comparison of the quantitative results of the test scores was used to compare the academic achievement between the two teaching methodologies. In addition, questionnaire-based survey on the online TOEIC course was conducted in the flipped classroom to explore students’ perception in this learning environment. These findings will show how the flipped classroom needs to be implemented properly and whether or not it is an effective method in teaching TOEIC.
Key words: blended learning, flipped classroom, innovation teaching, learning outcomes.
 
 

  1. INTRODUCTION

  1. The rationale of the study

Educators are continually challenged to find new strategies for engaging students in the classroom so as to increase the effectiveness of the learning process. Recent decades have witnessed tremendoustechnological advancements, whereby technology has become a powerful tool for individuals, groups and organisations because of its ability to speed up processes, increase efficiency and improve the quality of overall outcomes. The use of the flipped classroom as an alternative to the traditional learning environments has been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers and educators. The advancement in technological tools such as interactive videos, interactive in-class activities, and video conference systems paves the way for the widespread use of flipped classrooms (Johnston, 2017). It is even asserted that the flipped classroom, which is used to create effective teaching environments at schools, is the best model for using technology in education (Hamdan, McKnight, McKnight & Arfstrom, 2013).

At Ha Noi Industrial Textile Garment University (HTU), since the academic year of 2017-2018, the Decision No.1505 QĐ-ĐHCNDMHN on Learning Outcomes for English language Proficiency was officially in effect requiring that all students must have a certified English language proficiency certificate for graduation (TOEIC score of at least 400 points, equivalent to B1 level in the CEFR-V framework). Thus, TOEIC course was designed for the third year students to enroll and take an achievement test. For a long time, students had been taught based on teacher centered learning, entirely through lecturing method, tutorial sessions, and laboratory work with the ‘chalk and talk’ approach in a traditional classroom. Since 2019, the HTU lecturers have been producing modules for the subjects offered to students in order to change the way of teaching and learning, from lecturer centered to student centered learning that allows for a clear way to deliver the course schedule and engage students in class (Papadopoulos & Roman, 2010). Thus, flipped classroom model (FCM) was first introduced by Smartcom JSC’s in teaching online TOEIC. After one year of experiment, this model has not been evaluated on its effeciency. Hence, the author conducted the study “Evaluation on the efficacy of the flipped classroom in teaching a TOEIC course: A case study in Hanoi Industrial Textile Garment University” for the third-year students at HTU.

  1. Purpose of the study

This study is conducted as a case study in order to investigate the impact of flipped classroom model on students’ academic achievement, to explore student’ perception from this model. The overall findings of the study are served as a reference to evaluate the effectiveness of this model in teaching TOEIC at HTU.

  1. The research objectives

With the aim of the study, the following research objectives are:

  • Determine the students’ academic achievement in the flipped classroom versus the traditional classroom learning culture.

  • Determine student’s perception and satisfaction in the flipped classroom learning culture.

  1. The research questions

For the objectives of the study, the following research questions are made:
- What is the percentage of students' achievement in the traditional and flipped classroom learning culture.
- How is student’s perception in the flipped classroom learning culture?

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW

  1. What is the flipped classroom?

In 2008, Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams, two chemistry teachers at Woodland Park High School in Colorado’s Pike Peak, were finding it difficult to find the time to reteach lessons for absent students. They used their own money and bought software that allowed them to record lessons and they posted them online. The results were unexpected, they found that even students who had not missed class were watching the recordings because it helped them review and reinforce classroom lessons. This led to Bergmann and Sams rethinking how they used class time and the subsequent concept of a flipped classroom (Tucker, 2012).
Flipped classroom, or inverted class is a collaborative teaching design (Strayer, 2012) that has been developed in many countries. Flipped classroom is defined as a model of delivering instruction that shifts lectures from a class time activity to an at home activity and shifts “homework” from an at home activity to an in-class, critical thinking set of activities.
The "flipped classroom" is a model of blended learning, in which students learn by watching video lectures or other educational material at home, while the "homework” is done in the classroom with the teacher and students discussing and resolving queries (Kandroudi & Bratitsis, 2013). This model totally reverses the process of teaching and learning in traditional classroom-based setting. In traditional teaching, students attend the "lecture" of the course and answer in tests at school, while they study the book and solve the exercises at home. In contrast, in “flipped teaching”, students study the next lesson at home on their own, usually through a video, which has been prepared by their teacher or other available material, and once they come in the classroom they apply their knowledge by solving problems and taking part in consolidation activities. The teacher supports the students exactly where they need. Teachers’ role is shifted from the traditional lecture to guidance, support and personalization (Bishop & Verleger, 2013).
For the implementation of the model, the use of an online educational platform is required and here comes the contribution of distance methodology and educational technology. The reason we use and recommend this model is that the "flipped classroom" frees up valuable time for the acquisition of knowledge through problem solving and interaction of the students with each other, the teacher and the subject.

  1. Differences between the flipped classroom and traditional classroom

In the traditional model, students attend classes to perceive lectures from teachers passively. Students have no or little knowledge about the subject before they come to class. In class, they get taught all the knowledge, and it is often the basic knowledge about a subject. Students have to do the more comprehensive knowledge at home, it is called “homework”. For teachers, they play the role of directors and the teacher-centered learning process enables students to be inactive in learning and mastering knowledge.
With the model of the flipped classroom, students have direct access to the knowledge under teachers’ instruction and assignment. Whereas with the traditional classroom, students do not have direct access to the knowledge; with the flipped classroom, students have to prepare their contact moments. According to Bishop and Verleger (2013), flipped classroom is the restructuring of the classroom environment and activities at home. Therefore, by flipping the classroom the lecturer is able to reduce the amount of time spent in class on lecturing, opening up class time for the use of active learning strategies such as problem solving and discussion between students in the presence of lecturer.

  1. Previous studies on effectiveness of flipped classroom

The implementation of flipped classroom has been common in many countries having modern education. In recent years, several research studies have focused on the impacts of FC learning environments on students' academic achievements.
The first article was by Alvarez (2012) who reported on the students at Clintondale High School in Clinton Township, Michigan. In 2009, more than 50% of freshmen students failed English. The school determined that a flipped classroom would offer students more time to prepare for class. A year after implementing the flipped classroom educators in the school saw the percentage of students failing fell, compared with nearly a third the previous year. The conclusions at Clintondale High School were that “the flip approach holds the golden key for students because educators can control and eliminate learning obstacles, and it allows teachers to give their best presentations and share resources” (Alvarez, 2012).
Jeremy Strayer (2012) conducted his own work with a flipped classroom. The research took place in two different introductory statistics classrooms taught by Strayer at an unidentified U.S university. The typical student in his class was a middle-class white American from the Mid-West.  He structured one classroom to be a flipped and the other to be a traditional lecture-homework format. He did not compare the grade results between the two classes. Rather he used the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) to assess the perceptions of the learning environment. When comparing responses between students in the flipped class and students in the traditional class, students in the flipped class preferred an environment with greater Innovation and Cooperation but there was no evidence of a difference in preferences for the other scales.
  In Vietnam, the academic literature is extremely limited on actual quantitative studies on the effectiveness of the flipped classroom. A few of those, Nguyễn Văn Lợi (2014) synthesized researchs about the model of flipped classrooms and discussed the strengths and weaknesses of this model, from which some implications would be put forward as to its implementation in universities and colleges in Vietnam. The paper concluded the flipped classroom is actualy an effective way to improve learning motivation for students; however, it had not enough evidence to prove the effectiveness of flipped classroom on students’ academic achievement compared to other traditional campus-based modes.

  1. METHODOLOGY

  1. Participants of the study

The participants include 189 students (146 females and 43 males) from four third-year classes of the Faculty of Garment Technology getting involved in a TOEIC course. According to the HTU’ Regulation on Learning Outcomes for English language Proficiency as a graduation certification, all students must pass an achievement test in format of TOEIC testing with score of at least 400 points (B1 level in reference to the CEFR framework). These students in the age category of 21-23 years come from different cities and provinces and they were qualified a course of A1 and A2 level in two previous consecutive academic years. Thus, it is said that students have rather similar English level and it is very advantageous to measure students’ progress after the treatment.

  1. Design of the course

The study conducted an pedagory experiment for 189 students of sample. The TOEIC 400 course introduced by Smartcom Joint Stock Company had 10 lessons in 30 periods relating to some topics commonly used in TOEIC tests such as office, working day, going on business, meetings and conference, etc. The TOEIC course was randomly assigned to two different groups of learning: traditional lecture-based classroom (control group) and flipped classroom (experimental group). There were 94 students (74 females and 20 males) participating in the experimental group and the remaining (72 females and 23 males) enrolled in the control group. In this study, the week of teaching and the syllabus were the same between the two groups. There were two periods per week, and each lasted for two hours with two hours of student self-learning time after class time. At the beginning of the course, all participants took a pre-test (diagnostic test) in TOEIC format within two hours. The test score was only used to examine students’ preliminary level before the course, not to measure student’s achievement progress in the study.
In the regular classroom, the teacher distributed all materials for students, conducted her lesson plans traditionally from assigning the students TOEIC mini-tests, asking them to do and then reviewing vocabulary and grammar issues in the lesson. In the case of the traditional classroom, the lecturer will give PowerPoint lecture slides on how to solve the problem of the question from the module example. For post class homework, students will do tutorial questions from the module after class activity without the presence of lecturer or peers. During the next class, they will give a presentation and discussion on prepared topics in class. For assessment on each topic there are a quiz and a test that require students to do at home.
For the flipped classroom, the students were required to watch a video lecture at home before each class period. The course materials were provided through an online learning platform by Smartcom JSC at website www.pro.smartcom.vn. Based on Mason et al. (2013), these pre-class study videos often last for about 15-20 minutes, but the length of some others can vary within 30 minutes. All lecture Powerpoint slides relating to the content of each lesson were narrated in videos by the teachers and recorded by screen capturing applications such as Obs Studio, Camtasia,…). Instructional videos will show students how to solve the problem of the question from the module example of each topic. For assessment on each topic, there are a quiz and a test that require students to do online. During the class time, the students were required to participate in various active learning activities, such as problem solving and discussion on tutorial questions from the module, assignments and presentations. There was no post-class homework assignment for each class activity (Long et al., 2014). In this setting, teachers will play role of the faciliator to help students to gain knowledge and master skills throughout each topic. It is clear that the role of teacher was reversed from the “supplier” knowledge in traditional classroom setting to the instructor in flipped classroom. The student’s perception was also switched from passive approach to active one in mastering knowledge and skills.

  1. Instruments

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of flipped classroom model, the study was designed by using a mixed-method approach including two following instruments.

  1. Testing and assessment

Three kinds of testing in the study: diagnostic testing (pre-test), progress testing (mid-test) and achievement testing (post-test) would be taken to measure students’ achievement in progress. These were conducted to compare the test scores between the students of flipped classroom and thoes of traditional classroom at the beginning, in the middle and end of the course. The purpose is to determine the impact of the flipped classroom approach on student’s achievement compared to the traditional teaching model (the first research question).
Arthur Hughes (2003), a diagnostic test is designed to identity learner's strengths and weaknesses. They are intended primarily to ascertain what learning still needs to take place. Diagnostic testing typically happens at the start of a new phase of education, like when students will start learning a new unit. The test covers topics students will be taught in the upcoming lessons.
Arthur Hughes also defined that a progress test is intended to measure the progress that students are making. It contributes to formative assessment; this type of testing is used to gauge student learning during the lesson. It is used throughout a lecture and designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate that they have understood the materia.
An achievement test is to evaluate a learner's understanding of a specific course or study programme. The achievement test is admistered at the end of a course and its purpose is to establish how successful individual students, groups of students, or the courses themselves have been in achieving objectives. The content of these tests must be related to the courses with which they are concerned.
In the study, full TOEIC tests with 200 multiple-choice items for Listening and Reading skill were used to take the three tests. The tests were chosen from series of ETS TOEIC textbooks. The validity of all items could be assured and validated by US Educational Testing Service (known as ETS, the official administrator of TOEIC testing system). Therefore, the validity and reliability of the test could be trusted.

  1. Questionnaire

A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to determine students’ perception the flipped learning environment (the second research question).
The questionnaire was adapted from Web-Based Learning Environment Instrument (WEBLEI) by Chang & Fisher, 1998, 2003. It was used to gather data quantitatively on students’ perceptions of their web-based learning environment.  The author revised a little the content of some items to make it suitable with flipped learning course in the study.
The WEBLEI measures students’ perceptions across four scales with 32 items: Emancipatory activities (looking at convenience, efficiency and autonomy, also known as ACCESS, the item of 1-8); Co-participatory activities (looking at flexibility, reflection, quality, interaction, collaboration and feedback, known as INTERACTION, the item of 9-16); Qualia (looking at success, confidence, accomplishments and interest, known as RESPONSE, the item of 17-24); and Information structure and design (looking at how well the course and learning materials are structured and designed, known as RESULT, the item of 25-32). The four scales are scored using a five-point Likert scale, coded as 1 (Strongly Disagree), 2 (Disagree), 3 (Neither Disagree nor Agree), 4 (Agree) and 5 (Strongly Agree) (Chang &Fisher, 2003). According to Chang and Fisher (1998), for students to use this medium, they have to successfully access the Internet. Firsly, the Access scale establishes the extent to which variables associated with accessing this medium meet students’expectations. Once the students have logged in successfully, they should be able to interact productively with their peers and their teachers. Secondly, the Interaction scale explores the extent to which this is achieved from students’ point of view. Thirdly, the Response scale gives an indication of how they felt about using a web-based medium and finally, the Results scale gives an idea of whether they accomplished any of the learning objectives by using the learning resources accessed through this medium.

  1. Data collection procedure

All three tests in the study (pre-test, mid-test and post-test) were graded by Zipgrade marking application. This is an effective tool to grade multiple-choice tests by scanning students’ answer sheets, the mark would be automatically visualized basing on the input answer key. The TOEIC raw score is determined by the number of correct items that student earned and final mark is the total of converted score for Listening and Reading section (in reference to TOEIC Score Conversion Table 2019, ETS). An excel spreadsheet was made to present each student’s score of three tests in columns for analysis.
The survey questionnaire was designed by Google form application and sent to students via e-mail, Facebook or Zalo account. Before sharing the link to the students, the researcher directly explained the purpose, relevance and the importance of the study, as well as answered all the questions that the students had. The participants would complete the online survey and the data of respondents was directly collected in form of Google spreadsheet.

  1. Data analysis

Firstly, the result of test scores based on the percentage of students’ achievement in which they must have TOEIC score of minimum 400 points. The author made a statistic on the percentage of those who passed and failed the achievement test and gave a statistical comparison on students’ academic achievement between two cohorts.
Secondly, the students’ perception of flipped classroom was determined by analyzing the data from the WEBLEI questionnaire. After the data was collected, the level of response in Likert scale (from “Strongly Disgree” to “Strongly Agree”) was coded from 1 to 5 respectively and analyzed by Descriptive Statistics of IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS v.20) to determine means, standard deviation value. According to Will Kenton (2019), descriptive statistics are brief descriptive coefficients that summarize a given data set, which can be either a representation of the entire or a sample of a population. The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to provide a brief summary of the samples and the measures done on a particular study. Descriptive statistics are broken down into measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. Measures of central tendency include the mean, median, and mode, while measures of dispersion include the standard deviation, variance, the minimum and maximum variables, and the kurtosis and skewness. In this case, arithematic mean and standard deviation were focused to summarize the data result. The arithmetic mean can be obtained by adding all the items of the series and dividing this total by the number of items. The standard deviation is a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. A low standard deviation indicates that the values tend to be close to the mean (also called the expected value) of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the values are spread out over a wider range. The range of mean value can be interpreted as:

Mean value

Meaning

1.00 – 1.80

Most respondents chose the level “Strongly Disagree” in Likert scale, it shows students did not satify the use of FC course

1.81 – 2.60

Most respondents chose the level “Disagree” in Likert scale, it shows students’ rather low perception and satisfaction in FC course

2.61 – 3.40

Most respondents chose the level “Neither Disagree nor Agree” in Likert scale, it shows students’ uncertainty or “neutral ideas” in FC course

3.41 – 4.20

Most respondents chose the level “Agree” in Likert scale, it shows students’ rather high perception and satisfaction in FC courseàthe model needs improving and widely using

4.21 – 5.00

Most respondents chose the level “Strongly agree” in Likert scale, it shows students’ very high perception and satisfaction in FC course àthe model is actually effective and widely used.

 

 

  1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. The impact of the Flipped classroom model on students' academic achievement

In order to examine the impacts of flipped classroom on student’s academic achievement, a statistic on the percentage of those who passed and failed the achievement test between two cohorts was carried out. Table 1 illustrated the difference as follow:
Table 1.1 : The result of testing on student's achievement

The result found that the percentage of students that passed for both assessments was higher for the flipped classroom than the traditional classroom. In the diagnostic test (pre-test) at the beginning of the course, very few students could gain the pass score when only 14 out of 189 reached a minimum TOEIC score of 400 points. At first, this was actually a great concern for both teachers and students. For teachers, they would have good preparation in implementing the course under Smartcom’s technical support to gain the course’s objectives and improve training quality. For students, they must have great effort to pass the course as much as possible.
The result of mid-test after seven weeks of the course for both classes showed a great breakthrough in students’ achievement when the percentage of pass mark was 40%. However, the number of students passing the mid-test in the flipped classroom (36 ones) was slightly lower than those in the regular classroom (40 ones) due to the different size of sample. It can be stated that there were no statistically significant grade differences between the pass percentage of the students in both teaching methodologies. This does not invalidate the students’ belief that they did better in the flipped classroom but there is no evidence to support their claims other than their own perceptions of the learning experience. There was an expectation that grades would be higher in the flipped classroom for two reasons. The first was that quizzes were held the day following the due date for each video lecture. The reason could be that many students did not watch the videos, thus the overall major exam grades were comparatively similar to non-flipped sections. The second reason was that the in-class activities were designed to promote deeper learning of the course materials with the students doing more hands-on research and taking over more responsibility for the learning process. A reason for this could be the inexperience of the teachers teaching this flipped classroom.
The result of post-test revealed a success in students’ achievement of both control and experimental groups in which the passing percentage was 73% for the flipped classroom environment and 60% for the traditional classroom. It is clear that the implementation of the course in steps was carried out properly and partially proved the effectiveness of the flipped classroom model.

  1. The result of student’s perception on flipped classroom model

The students’ perception of flipped classroom was examined by analyzing the data from the WEBLEI questionnaire and using the descriptive statistics of SPSS to determine the mean and standard deviation value of four scales in WEBLEI survey. The mean and standard deviation index for each scale was the average of those of the eight items seperately (can be fully seen in the appendix B).
 
Table 2:  Overall result of student perception
 
As can be seen in Table 2, the mean scores (3.99, 3.85, 3.74 and 3.89) for the four scales respectively show that on average the student respondents gave a response of level 3 to 5 on the items in these scales. This would indicate a favorable response on most statements with an overall mean of 3.87 (the average of four scales’ mean score) which indicates a relatively high mean over the 32 statements.
The mean score of Scale 1 - Access is 3.99 (in Table 2), it unveiled that students generally agree that they can access the online learning materials within their overall mixed learning environment. The flipped The Smartcom’s learning management system seems to provide them with autonomy of choosing suitable time to gain access to learning materials. This is the highest value; it means that easy-to-access ability is the most preeminent function of the online learning system.
The mean score of scale Interaction of 3.85 (in Table 2) indicated that the students believed they were able to participate and interact with other students and lecturers within the online environment. This confirmed the effectiveness of online learning because most students prefered working in groups to finishing the tasks individually. Specifically, the mean of 3.90 (statement 12) and 3.94 (statement 11) revealed the students’ preference in this model; specifically, they could ask other students and tutor what they did not understand. By this way, they can share and learn from friends who can help them improve their study.
A mean score of 3.74 for scale III Response (in Table 2) indicates that generally students feel satisfaction after using both the flipped classroom setting and e-learning system to help complete their particular course. The Response scale includes students’ feedback on how they experienced and perceived the web-based system in term of interaction with other students and the lecturer. Although this is the lowest value compared to the rest of three scales, it still proves a high agreement on the effectiveness of the model.
Finally, scale IV (Results) had a mean score of 3.89, shown in Table 2, which reflected students’ agreement that the learning objectives and its structure and design of the online course materials were flexible and feasible in helping them in their studying. Student respondents were positive towards the presentation and effectiveness of the model. They admited that the online course was improving their learning achievement. In general, the results from the WEBLEI survey were positive with students, expressing their satisfaction with use of flipped learning environments.
Overall, the findings of the study suggest that the students favoured learning in a flipped classroom over a traditional lecture-based classroom. In the questionnaire, the students were asked to subjectively rate the flipped and traditional teaching methods in terms of their effectiveness to increase mastery of the course material. The majority of students showed greater preference for the flipped classroom, rather than traditional lectures. Interestingly, almost all students had a high level of satisfaction in the flipped classroom and generally enjoyed learning in the flipped classroom environment.

  1. Discussion

The findings suggest that learning in a flipped classroom increases students’ academic achievment and level of satisfaction, compared with the traditional classroom environment. The results of mean scores show that students involved in the experimental group seems to have better score than those of the control group. This proves that the flipped classroom model has brought a brand new and actually effective learning measure for both students and teachers at HTU. For students, flipped classes allow students to master skills through projects and collaborative discussions. This encourages students to learn concepts together under the teachers’ instruction. By mastering their own learning process, they can enhance their acquisition and confidence. For teachers, they can identify students’ problems and difficulties in learning and help them to gain learning objectives.
Moreover, while the findings of this study indicated the potential benefits of the flipped classroom in terms of improved academic performance and satisfaction, students’ responses suggested that incorporating specific aspects of flipped learning was successful. The students appreciated the quality and variety of pre-class and in-class activities and materials that were offered, asthey increased their understanding of key concepts prior to and during classroom sessions. A majority cited that the pre-class activities prepared them for the instruction during the in-class sessions. Others appreciated the effectiveness of peer discussions in increasing their understanding of the subject and developing their social and cognitive skills. This information indicates the need for educators to design flipped classrooms in a manner that is tailored to the specific needs of their students.

  1. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of flipped classroom model in teaching TOEIC for the third year students in HTU. The goals of this study were to compare the academic outcomes between two teaching methodologies, namely, a flipped classroom style versus traditional lecture-style as well as analyze student views of a flipped classroom environment. There are two types of instrument used in this study: Test score aimed to compare students’ achievement in flipped classroom versus tradional lecture-based classroom, and questionnaire survey was to explore students’ perception and satisfaction in using flipped classroom model. In the process of pedagogical experiment to evaluate the effect of flipped classroom, it is found that there was a slight difference between the pre- and post-test scores of the experimental group and control group and students’ good perception from the model. This means that flipped classroom may be a potentially effective method in teaching TOEIC at Hanoi Industrial Textile Garment University.
Although the author tried the best to conduct the study subjectively, there are some limitations. Firstly, this was the first time the flipped-course format had been introduced to the students, the findings could be biased, as the students could have held prior knowledge of the intent of the flipped classroom. Moreover, the study focused on a small size of participants. They are only 189 out of nearly 800 third-year students involved in the study within one semester of experiment. Among, only 100 students participated in the experimental group (flipped classroom) because HTU administration had bought the license trial for only 100 student accounts from Smartcom JSC. If the study was conducted in a large scale with more participants and over a longer period of time with more courses, the results of the study would be better. Furthermore, the positive results from this study may be different when a flipped approach is conducted on courses from other disciplines. Thus, more practical research is needed to contribute a deeper understanding of the effectiveness of the flipped approach in enhancing students’ learning outcomes in other courses at university.
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